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Buck stops here

The buck stops here is used to say that this is the point where responsibility lies or the person who is responsible.
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My family - Моя семья


   I am going to tell you about my family. We are a family of five. It is neither large nor small. I have a mother, a father, a sister and a grandmother. We are happy to be living together and we are a very friendly family.
   My father, Petr Ivanovych, is 45 years old. He is a good-looking, tall and well-built man with black hair and green eyes. He is an engineer and works at a big plant. He is always very busy but he likes his work and spends most of his time there. He is a very energetic and sociable (1) person.
   My mother's name is Olga Petrovna. She is 40. She is a teacher of English and knows her subject well. She always has a lot of work to do at school and about the house. My mother looks pretty. She is a busy woman and all of us help her. My sister's name is Ira. She has grey eyes and lovely dark hair like my mother. She is twelve. She is a pupil of the 6th form.
   Ira does well (2) at school and gets only good and excellent marks. She is fond of music and plays the piano very well. My sister wants to become a teacher of music. My grandmother is a pensioner. She is a very kind and clever woman. She is always ready to help my mother about the house. But her health is poor (3) and we must take care of (4) her every day. All of us like to spend our weekends in the country where we have a cottage (5). In summer it is very beautiful there.
   I also have many other relatives: aunts, uncles and cousins.
   I think we are a friendly family and I like it very much.



   Позвольте мне рассказать вам о своей семье, которая состоит из пяти человек. Она ни большая, ни маленькая. У меня есть мама, папа, сестра и бабушка. Мы счастливы, что живем вместе и мы очень дружная семья.
Моему отцу, Петру Романовичу, 45 лет. Он красивый, высокий и крепкий мужчина с черными волосами и зелеными глазами. Он инженер и работает на большом заводе. Он всегда очень занят, но ему нравится работа и он проводит большую часть своего времени именно там. Он очень энергичный и общительный.
   Мою мать зовут Ольга Петровна, ей 40. Она учительница английского языка и хорошо владеет предметом. Она всегда имеет много работы в школе и дома. Мама очень симпатичная. Она занятая женщина, и все мы помогаем ей. Мою сестру зовут Ира. У неё серые глаза и прекрасные темные волосы, как и у нашей мамы. Ей двенадцать лет. Она ученица 6 класса.
   Ира хорошо учится в школе и получает только хорошие и отличные оценки. Она любит музыку и очень хорошо играет на фортепиано. Моя сестра хочет стать учительницей музыки. Моя бабушка - пенсионер. Она очень чуткая и умная женщина. Она всегда помогает моей матери по хозяйству. Но у моей бабушки плохое здоровье и мы все беспокоимся о ней каждый день. Всем нам нравится проводить выходные в селе, где у нас дача. Летом там очень красиво.
   У меня есть много других родственников: тети, дяди и двоюродные братья.
   Я считаю, что мы дружная семья и мне это очень нравится.
About myself - О себе


   Let me introduce myself. My full name is Alexander Ivanov. I am 15 years old. I was born in the town of Moscow on the 26th of March, 1987. I am a pupil of the 9th form. I go to school number 1. I study well and get only good and excellent marks in all school subjects. Especially I am very good at humanities(1). My favourite subjects are the English and Russian languages. I am particularly interested in literature, history and geography. I am fond of reading books of English and Russian authors(2). My favourite writer is Jack London. I have read many of his books. Besides school studies I am interested in sport. I like playing football, basketball and volleyball. But I am especially good at lawn tennis(3).I always take part in different tennis competitions, which are held in our school and town.
   My family is not very large. There are four of us. I have a mother, a father and an elder sister.
   Especially I like to help my mother about the house by washing the dishes(4), doing shopping(5) and tiding up6 our flat.
   I like to spend my free time with my family or with my friends.
   When the weather is fine I like to spend my days off out of town. In summer I go to the forest or on a bank of the river. In winter I go to the skating rink.
   When the weather is bad my friends come to my place. We listen to music, discuss books we've read and films we've seen.
   In the evening I usually watch TV with my family or go to the dancing hall with my friends. Sometimes we go to the cinema, to the theatre or to the concert.
   I am a happy person because I have friendly family, many good classmates and I am young and healthy.



   Разрешите мне представиться. Меня зовут Александр Иванов. Мне 15 лет. Я родился в городе Москва 26 марта 1996 года. Я ученик 9 класса. Я учусь в школе номер один. Я учусь хорошо и получаю только хорошие и отличные оценки со всех учебных предметов. Я имею склонность к гуманитарным наукам. Мои любимые предметы – русский и английский язык. Больше всего я интересуюсь литературой, историей и географией. Я увлекаюсь чтением книг английских и русских авторов. Мой любимый писатель – Джек Лондон. Я прочитал много его книг. Кроме школьного обучения, я увлекаюсь спортом. Мне нравиться играть в футбол, баскетбол и волейбол. Но особенно хорошо я играю в большой теннис. Я всегда участвую в разных соревнованиях по теннису, которые проходят в нашей школе и в нашем городе.
   У меня не очень большая семья. Нас четверо. У меня есть мама, папа и старшая сестра.
   Больше всего мне нравиться помогать своей маме по хозяйству: мыть посуду, делать покупки, убирать в квартире.
   Мне нравиться проводить свободное время со семьей или с друзьями.
   Когда хорошая погода, мне нравиться проводить свободные дни за городом. Летом я хожу в лес или на берег речки. Зимой я хожу на каток.
   Когда погода плохая, ко мне приходят мои друзья. Мы слушаем музыку, обсуждаем книги, которые прочитали и фильмы, которые смотрели.
   Обычно вечером я вместе со своей семьей смотрю телевизор или иду танцевать с друзьями. Иногда мы ходим в кино, в театр или на концерт.
   Я счастливый, потому что имею очень дружную семью, много школьных друзей и я молодой и здоровый.
The History of Britain - История Великобритании


   Two thousand years ago the Celts, who had been arriving from Europe, mixed with the peoples who were already in Britain Isles. The Roman province of Britannia covered most of the territory of present day England and Wales. The Romans imposed their own way of living, culture, and language. But inspite of their long occupation of Britain, there isn't much they left behind. Even most of temples, roads and cities were later destroyed. But such place names
like Chester, Lancaster, Gloucester remind us of the Romans.
The Romans influenced mainly the towns. In the country (where most people lived) Celtic speech dominated. The farming methods remained there unchanged. We can't speak about Roman's occupation as a large-scale settlement.
   Later (during the 5th century) two tribes (the Angles and the Saxons) settled in Britain. They settled on a very vast territory. Only in the west of the country King Arthur and his army halted the tribes. But in the 6th century the way of life of these tribes predominated in England. The Celtic Britons' culture and language survived in Southwest
Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.
   If the Romans had great influence on towns, the Anglo-Saxons influenced the countryside. There new methods of farming were introduced and a number of villages were founded.
   The Anglo-Saxons were pagans, when they arrived in Britain. Christianity came from Rome in 597.
   In the 8th century Britain was invaded by the Vikings, who came from Scandinavia. They settled in the North and West of Scotland and in some regions of Ireland. Later they were defeated by King Alfred.
   Normans invaded Britain in the 11th century (1066). But this invasion wasn't a large-scale one. Still this invasion influenced the life of Britain greatly.
   At that time a feudal system was imposed. Lords and barons were French-speaking Normans. The peasants were the English-speaking Saxons.
   Barons were responsible to the king, lords — to a baron. Under them were peasants. That was the beginning of the English class system. The Anglo-Norman kingdom was the most powerful political force at that time. In this period the Germanic language (Middle English) dominated in England. As Northern and Central Wales was never settled by Saxons and Normans, the Welsh language and culture dominated there.
   In the 13th century Parliament included elected representatives from urban and rural areas.
   During the 16th century the power of the English monarch increased. The Tudor dynasty (1485—1603) established a system of government which strongly depended on the monarch. Parliament was split into two Houses. The House of Lords consisted of the aristocracy and the leaders of the Church. The House of Commons consisted
of representatives from the towns.
   During the 17th century Parliament established its supremacy over the monarchy in Britain. The conflict between the monarchy and Parliament led to the Civil Wars, which ended with the victory of Parliament. The leader of the parliamentary army was Oliver Cromwell. But after his death his system of government became unpopular. The son of the executed king was asked to take the throne.
   In the 18th century the Scottish Parliament joined with the English and the Welsh Parliaments.
   In that century the increased trade led to the Industrial Revolution. People from rural areas moved to towns. The population of London was close to a million at that time.
   In the 19th century Britain controlled the biggest Empire in the world. The Empire was made up of Ireland, Canada, Australia, India and large parts of Africa. These countries had internal self-government, but recognized the authority of the British government. Britain was the greatest economic power. The British spread their culture and
civilization around the world.
   The beginning of the 20th century can't be called stable. Women struggled for their rights. The situation in Ulster wasn't stable. At the beginning of this century the working class became stronger. In Parliament, the Labour party replaced the Liberals. Trade unions organized themselves. Until 1980s the Trades Union Congress was the most powerful political force outside the institutions of government.